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Sandoval Salazar, I. A., Darwich Cedeño, M. T., Castañeda, M. D. R., Torres Munar, W. A., & Montenegro Ruiz, L. C. (2021). Aproximación al tratamiento de aguas residuales del lavado del café con las microalgas Parachlorella kessreli y Desmodesmus armatus. Revista Mutis, 11(2), 32-43. https://doi.org/10.21789/22561498.1755

Resumen

Colombia es uno de los mayores productores de café en el mundo, con un mercado que superó los 13,9 millones de sacos en 2020. Sin embargo, en el proceso de beneficio húmedo del café se emplean grandes cantidades de agua, aproximadamente 4.154.354 m3, en las fases de despulpado, lavado y transporte del grano, generando aguas residuales contaminadas que tienen poco tratamiento antes de ser vertidas a las fuentes hídricas. En el presente trabajo se buscó aislar especies de microalgas que crezcan en estos ambientes, utilizar estas especies en procesos de depuración de aguas residuales del proceso de lavado del café y buscar una aplicación de la biomasa resultante. Para la obtención de las cepas de microalgas se utilizaron técnicas de agotamiento. Con el fin de evaluar su capacidad de depuración, estas fueron cultivadas en agua residual de diferentes concentraciones bajo condiciones de laboratorio, determinando la remoción de materia orgánica. Adicionalmente, se caracterizó bioquímicamente la biomasa algal para determinar posibles usos biotecnológicos o industriales. Se encontró dos Chloroficeaes cocales, Parachlorella kessreli y Desmodesmus armatus, las cuales demostraron una alta eficiencia en la remoción de nitrógeno total (> 50 %) y fósforo total (> 70 %), así como una disminución significativa de la DQO (> 70 %) en los mejores tratamientos. Finalmente, se encontró para Parachlorella kessreli alta producción de lípidos y para Desmodesmus armatus alta producción de proteína.

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