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Ariza Hernández , V. ., Garzón Pulido , M. C. ., & Camacho Kurmen , J. E. . (2022). Revisión del estado actual de las formulaciones y aplicaciones de astaxantina producida por Haematococcus pluvialis. Revista Mutis, 13(1), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.21789/22561498.1894
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Creative Commons License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.

Resumen

La astaxantina es un pigmento carotenoide ampliamente reconocido por sus propiedades antioxidantes y por sus grandes beneficios sobre la salud. Aunque existen varios microorganismos que tienen la capacidad de sintetizar este carotenoide, la microalga Haematococcus pluvialis ha demostrado ser la fuente más promisoria al realizarlo bajo condiciones de estrés por deficiencia de nutrientes, diferentes intensidades de luz, entre otros. Dado que la astaxantina es una molécula con gran inestabilidad química, baja biodisponibilidad e hidrofobicidad, existen diferentes métodos de formulación, que mejoran su estabilidad y por ende su uso como colorante y compuesto bioactivo en productos alimenticios, nutracéuticos, cosméticos, acuícolas o farmacéuticos. Debido a las diferentes aplicaciones y utilidades del carotenoide, se propone como objetivo conocer las aplicaciones y formulaciones existentes de astaxantina como métodos para mejorar su estabilidad, biodisponibilidad y aplicación, e identificar los materiales utilizados y las tecnologías aplicadas en los procesos de formulación. Las emulsiones, liposomas, encapsulados y microencapsulados, representan las formulaciones actuales, las cuales utilizan como diferentes materiales para proteger la pared, y evitar la oxidación del carotenoide, alginato de calcio, aceite de girasol, aceite de soja, maltodextrina y goma arábiga, estos presentan diferentes porcentajes de eficiencia de encapsulación entre 40-98.8% (Burgos-Díaz et al., 2020, Oh et al., 2020), y se emplean tecnologías como emulsificación, liofilización, nanoliposomas, spray drying, entre otras.

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