Razón Crítica https://revistas.utadeo.edu.co/index.php/razoncritica <p><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">Razón Crítica </span></strong>(ISSN 2500-7807, e-ISSN 2539-5300) es una publicación semestral de carácter académico e investigativo, que busca generar un espacio de difusión de resultados de procesos de investigación en el campo de las ciencias sociales y afines y es editada por la <a href="https://www.utadeo.edu.co/es/facultad/ciencias-sociales" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Facultad de Ciencias Sociales</a> de la <a href="https://www.utadeo.edu.co/es" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano</a> (Colombia).</p> <p><strong><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.21789/issn.2500-7807" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://doi.org/10.21789/issn.2500-7807</a></strong></p> <p>Estas son nuestras pautas editoriales:</p> <p>Pautas <a title="Pautas_RC _21 " href="http://bit.ly/pautas_RC%20_21 " target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://bit.ly/pautas_RC_21</a><br>Guidelines <a title="Guidelines RC 21 " href="http://bit.ly/GuidelinesRC%20_21" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://bit.ly/GuidelinesRC_21</a><br>Diretrizes <a title="Diretrizes RC 21" href="http://bit.ly/DiretrizesRC_21" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://bit.ly/DiretrizesRC_21</a></p> <p align="justify">Para contactar con el equipo editorial, puede enviar un correo electrónico a <a href="mailto: razoncritica@utadeo.edu.co">razoncritica@utadeo.edu.co</a></p> <p align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify">&nbsp;</p> Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano es-ES Razón Crítica 2500-7807 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0</a>.</p> Countering Terrorism and Criminal Financing in Nigeria: Strategic Options https://revistas.utadeo.edu.co/index.php/razoncritica/article/view/Countering-Terrorism-Criminal-Financing-Nigeria-Strategic-Options <p>This work analysis Nigeria’s effort to counter terrorism and criminal financing (TCF). It shows that criminal and terrorist organizations in fund their operations through an illegal financial infrastructure embedded in the Nigerian financial sector. To counter and deny access to funds that could be used to destabilize the state and compromise the integrity of financial institutions in the country to these malign non-state actors, Nigeria has deployed several strategies. By using qualitative research methodology, and a historical, descriptive, and narrative approach, it was discovered that Nigeria has used both government institutions, such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit (NFIU) and legal-cum financial instruments, such as the Terrorism (Prevention) (Amendment) Act (TPAA) and the Anti Money Laundering/Combating Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT), to disrupt TCF in the country. In its conclusion, the work argues that Nigeria will have to be strategic in its response if it hopes to effectively counter TCF. This strategic response, this work show, will involve the extensive use of technical and financial expertise from international anti-money laundering bodies like the EGMONT Group and the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).</p> Adewunmi J. Falode Nnamani E. Chukwuemeka Derechos de autor 2022 Razón Crítica 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 13 10.21789/25007807.1861 Four Reasons Why There Is No “Poverty Trap” In Rural China https://revistas.utadeo.edu.co/index.php/razoncritica/article/view/Four-Reasons-Why-There-No-Poverty-Trap-Rural-China <p>In 2020 China eliminated the overall regional poverty and finished the arduous task of solving the problem of absolute poverty. Even though there is an actual lingering problem of relative poverty, the objective risk of falling into a poverty trap in China’s underdeveloped regions does not reasonably exist. This article analyzes four perspectives to underpin such statement: the institutional, the historical, the individual, and the spiritual power.</p> Wang Zhizhang Tan Xia Yang Zhihong Derechos de autor 2022 Razón Crítica 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 13 10.21789/25007807.1860 Community Of Shared Future for Humanity: A Developing Emotional Community? https://revistas.utadeo.edu.co/index.php/razoncritica/article/view/Community-Shared-Future-Humanity-Developing-Emotional-Community <p>China's growth in recent decades and its relationship with the liberal world order led by the United States –of which China questions some of its main characteristics— has put the country at the center of international debate. Three visions of the role of China in this relationship are discussed: a) China adapts to this order due to its involvement in the international society and its participation in international organizations; b) China modifies and adjusts to it through the same organizations or by the creation of new ones; or c) China clashes with the organizations and a new order is constructed. This paper departs from this discussion by analyzing the relation between China and the international liberal order by deconstructing China’s strategic narrative of a “Community of Shared Future for Mankind” (CSFM) to evidence the emotional components that underpin it. This paper shows how China uses emotions to stress certain principles and visions.</p> Federico Verly Derechos de autor 2022 Razón Crítica 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 13 10.21789/25007807.1854 La evaluación sobre la colaboración para reducir la pobreza entre China y América Latina y las estrategias para el futuro https://revistas.utadeo.edu.co/index.php/razoncritica/article/view/Evaluacion-sobre-colaboracion-reducir-pobreza-entre-China-America-Latina-estrategias-futuro <p>China ha alcanzado grandes logros en la reducción de pobreza y ha sido ampliamente reconocida por el mundo. Por el contrario, América Latina y Caribe (ALC) está atrapada en la pobreza; así, la cooperación entre ambas partes va a ser muy importante para alcanzar los objetivos de la Agenda del Desarrollo Sostenible de la onu para 2030. Con el fin de evaluar las colaboraciones enfocadas en la reducción de pobreza hechas por ambas partes, y mejorar el proceso con estrategias viables, este artículo se realiza de manera cualitativa a través de una amplia lectura. Asimismo, se divide en tres objetivos principales: describir la pobreza desde una dimensión múltiple de alc, definir las ventajas y desafíos de las cooperaciones desde el nivel macro, meso y micro, y diseñar estrategias de mejora para la colaboración, enfocadas en la reducción de la pobreza de ambas partes en el futuro. Se descubre que, durante los últimos 20<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> años, China y ALC han realizado una gran cantidad de colaboraciones en términos políticos, económicos, infraestructurales, culturales y otros más; además, la promoción del desarrollo económico ha ayudado a reducir la tasa de pobreza. Sin embargo, también dificultan el proceso los desafíos, la falta de mecanismos políticos específicos, la construcción de infraestructura que produce influencias negativas; en ese sentido, el comercio internacional debe ampliar tanto el volumen como el rango de productos, el intercambio cultural debe ampliar su cobertura, etc. Por último, bajo los cinco indicadores de la iniciativa de La Franja y la Ruta, el artículo plantea una serie de estrategias para el futuro.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> El presente artículo se estructura como resultado parcial del proyecto aprobado, con el código 2021WYZX05, por Chongqing Federation of Social Science; el proyecto 2021JY077 por Southwest University of China y el proyecto SWU2109230 por Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China<em>.</em></p> Chenxi Luo Zhizhang Wang Derechos de autor 2022 Razón Crítica 2022-03-16 2022-03-16 13 10.21789/25007807.1859 A Mercantilist Approach to the Chinese Economic Growth: Balance of Trade, GDP, and Investment https://revistas.utadeo.edu.co/index.php/razoncritica/article/view/Mercantilist-Approach-Chinese-Economic-Growth-Balance-Trade-GDP-Investment <p>This paper studies the short-run and long-run relationships between trade, investment, and the Chinese economic growth from 1992 to 2019. A vector error correction (VEC) model was estimated in order to analyze the causal relationships among balance of trade, investment (both national and foreign), and economic growth. The results helped us to discuss the mechanisms considered within the mercantilist literature to relate a positive balance of trade and economic growth. Particularly, the estimation suggests that the causality mechanism between the variables is closer to a financial mercantilist or developmental explanation or rather than a monetarist mercantilist approach. That is, the positive effect of the commercial balance on economic growth in China seems related to the increase of national investment, instead of the attraction of foreign direct investment.</p> Julen Berasaluce Iza José Antonio Romero Tellaeche Derechos de autor 2022 Razón Crítica 2022-03-08 2022-03-08 13 10.21789/25007807.1855 China’s Social Assistance and Poverty Reduction Policy: Development, Main Measures, and Inspiration to Global Poverty Alleviation https://revistas.utadeo.edu.co/index.php/razoncritica/article/view/China%E2%80%99s-Social-Assistance-Poverty-Reduction-Policy-Development-Main-Measures-Inspiration-Global-Poverty-Alleviation <p>China’s Social Assistance and Poverty Reduction Policy is an essential requirement for alleviating poverty and guaranteeing the basic needs of people who live at the bottom of society and are unable to obtain a source of livelihood through their own means. This paper summarizes the development of China’s policy and its social assistance main measures aimed at fighting poverty and analyzes its possible contributions to alleviating global poverty. The main findings of the study are that: social assistance is a key factor within the poverty reduction policy and such policy is the foundation of the poverty reduction policy; an exemplary institutional synergy has resulted from the multi-tiered poverty reduction policy system; the comprehensive poverty reduction policy and the poverty alleviation and development policy have been connected effectively; the grass-roots services and supervision mechanisms have also been continuously improved. Additionally, sustained economic development has provided stable financial support for implementing its policy and its government has committed to improve the system, adding importance to building a security net for people’s livelihood, and establishing a comprehensive policy system for poverty reduction. Forming a responsibility mechanism led by the government and supplemented by social forces<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>, China has constructed a policy adjustment mechanism compatible with social development, to innovate grassroots social governance, aimed at continuously improving the performance of poverty reduction. A look at China’s poverty reduction historical process can inspire the world’s poverty governance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> “Social forces” refers to those who are involved in advancing social development, including natural persons and juridical persons (social organizations, public institutions affiliated with Party and government offices, non-governmental organizations, Party-mass communities, non-profit organization, enterprises, etc.).</p> Lan Jian Guo Jiejie Derechos de autor 2022 Razón Crítica 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 13 10.21789/25007807.1856